Search this site. Navigation Welcome. Virtual Classroom. Get Answers. Contact Me. All matter is made up of molecules that vibrate at different speeds.
The temperature of an object is as a result of it's internal kinetic energy. If sufficient energy is transferred to the object, the speed at which the molecules vibrate would increase and it would be noted by a rise in temperature. The heat capacityC is the amount of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a mass by 1 degree Celsius. It is measured in J kg-1 0C This means that it would take J of energy to change the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree celsius.
Latent Heat is referred to as hidden heat. This is the heat that is required to change the state of a substance without a change in temperature.
It occurs at the melting point or the boiling point and depends on the mass and the specific latent heat of the substance. It is measured J kg-1 The specific latent heat of vapourization lv of a substance is the quantity of heat required to change a unit mass of liquid to a gas without a change in temperature.
This occurs at the boiling point. This occurs at the melting point. Question Why is the latent heat of vaporization of water greater than the latent heat of fusion of water?
Answer: The latent heat of fusion and vaporization both involve the heat required to change the state of a substance without a change in temperature. In the case of the latent heat of fusion it is the heat required to change a substance from a solid ice to a liquid water or vice versa while the latent heat of vaporization from a liquid water to a gas steam or vice versa.
In solids, the molecules are very close together and the attraction between the molecules are great. This causes a substance to have a structure in which the molecules have little freedom to move, as you would see in the case of ice.
In the case of a liquid, the molecules are closely spaced, though not as closely spaced as a solid, they have more freedom to move and the intermolecular forces are weaker that that of a solid.
Thus a liquid can flow, unlike a solid. Now in a gas, the molecules are sufficiently far apart that there are little to no attractive forces.
Experiment for specific latent heat of fusion of ice
Because of this a gas can easily be compressed and take the shape of the container. Now as you heat a solid turning it into a liquid, you increase the kinetic energy of its molecules, moving them further apart until the forces of attraction are reduced to allow it to flow freely. Keep in mind the forces of attraction still exists. Now as you heat a liquid, turning it into a gas, the kinetic energy of the molecules are increased to a point where there are no forces of attraction between the molecules.
The energy required to completely separate the molecules, moving from liquid to gas, is much greater that if you were just to reduce their separation, solid to liquid. Hence the reason why the latent heat of vaporization is greater that the latent heat of fusion. Subpages 2 : Finding Latent heat of fusion of ice Finding specific heat of a metal.Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius. But the temperature of an ice cube can fall well below that.
When an ice cube is removed from a freezer, the cube's temperature increases as it absorbs heat from its surroundings. But once the ice cube reaches 0 C, it begins to melt and its temperature stays at 0 throughout the melting process, even though the ice cube continues to absorb heat. This occurs because the thermal energy absorbed by the ice cube is consumed by water molecules separating from each other during melting.
The amount of heat absorbed by a solid during its melting phase is known as the latent heat of fusion and is measured via calorimetry. Place an empty Styrofoam cup on a balance and record the mass of the empty cup in grams. Then fill the cup with about milliliters, or about 3. Return the filled cup to the balance and record the weight of the cup and water together.
Place a thermometer into the water in the cup, wait about 5 minutes for the thermometer to come to thermal equilibrium with the water, then record the temperature of the water as the initial temperature. Place two or three ice cubes on a paper towel to remove any liquid water on the surfaces of the cubes, then quickly transfer the cubes to the Styrofoam cup. Use the thermometer to gently stir the mixture. Observe the temperature reading on the thermometer. It should begin to drop almost immediately.
Continue stirring and record the lowest temperature indicated on the thermometer before the temperature begins to rise. Remove the thermometer and return the Styrofoam cup once again to the balance and record the mass of the cup, water and melted ice together.
Determine the mass of water in the cup by subtracting the mass of the empty cup from the weight of the cup and water together, as collected in step 1.
For example, if the empty cup weighed 3. Calculate the temperature change of the water by subtracting the initial water temperature from the final water temperature. Thus, if the initial temperature was This represents the heat removed from the water, hence its negative sign.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Latent Heat of Fusion. Hannah Tuason. Latent Heat of Fusion Abstract Latent Heat of Fusion Lf is the heat energy absorbed of the substance as it changes its state from the solid state to the liquid state without the change in temperature. This is expressed in joules J per unit mass kg of the substance. In this experiment, our goal was to measure the latent heat of fusion of ice as it melts to water.
It is a simple assessment of mixing ice and warm water, with its 1 final and initial temperatures and 2 masses were recorded. The acoustics of this experiment obey The Principle of Conservation of Energy, whereby two substances try to achieve thermal equilibrium by transmitting heat to each other and attaining zero net heat transfer.
Introduction This paper aims to easily show how latent heat of fusion can be resolved through a simple experiment. This is done with resources that are readily available such as ice and warm water.
Since this can be carried out with many trials, it can be selected as one of the experiments for Heat of Fusion in school. Measure Tice, the temperature of the ice. Measure Trm, the room temperature. Determine Mcal, the mass of the empty, dry calorimeter.
Measure Tinitial, initial temperature of the warm water. Add small chunks of ice to the warm water, wiping the excess water from each piece of ice immediately before adding. Add the ice slowly, stirring continuously with the thermometer until each chunk melts.
When the temperature of the mixture is as much below room temperature as the warm water was initially above room temperature and all the ice is melted, measure the final temperature of the water Tinitial 9. Immediately after measuring Tfinal, weigh the calorimeter and water to determine Mfinal.
The error could be due to the ineffectiveness of the insulating material where the objects were placed. The heat of the warm water could be transferred into the container instead of the ice. Conclusion In conclusion, calorimetry enables us to analyze the transfer of heat and this was confirmed in our results.
Ice was placed in warm water to achieve thermal equilibrium and the concept of calorimetry allowed us to incorporate heat transfer into numerical values and hence compute for the heat of fusion. In tandem with our experiment Recommendation One of the sources of error could be the parallax error.
A traditional thermometer was used as to measure the temperature of the substances and not carefully reading the temperature at eye-level could affect the calculation in the part of the temperature change.
Experiment for specific latent heat of fusion of ice
Also, it is important that the room temperature must be constant and the insulating material is of high caliber in order to attain maximum efficiency in heat transfer.
Thus in the laboratory, it is always recommended to check the stability of the room temperature as air-conditioning is used in contrast to a warmer environment beyond the walls of the room. It is also recommended that the insulating material must be of high quality condition and ensured of no leakage or damages. Related Papers. By Fattihi Ekhmal. Physics Laboratory Manual 2.Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Circuit made 2.
Calorimeter on insulating wool placed on mass balance 3. Heater placed in calorimeter 4. Mass balance set to zero 5.
Water heated in kettle then poured into calorimeter 6. Heater switched on, p.
Recording started when water boiling: Mass of water recorded every minute for 12 minutes 8. We isolated two parts of the experiment in order to find out how much evaporation of the liquid nitrogen was from the surroundings B and how much evaporation from the electricity G. When a substance is undergoing a phase transition, more heat energy is being added to the Substance but its temperature a way of measuring its energy is not changing.
Where does this Energy go if it does not go into heating up the substance? If a substance is changing from a Solid to a liquid is it absorbing or emitting heat? How about from a gas to a liquid? If a substance is changing from solid to liquid then it absorbs heat from the surroundings in order to melt breaking the bonds that hold the molecules together. Gas to liquid is condensation which heat is emitting out of the substance and being removed.
She measures that it takes 1 minute for grams of the substance to evaporate. What is the latent of vaporization of this substance?
If she The potential energy stored in the interatomic forces between molecules needs to be overcome by the kinetic energy the motion of the particles before the substance can change phase.
Theory When a solid has reached its melting point, additional heating melts the solid without a temperature change. The temperature will remain constant at the melting point until the entire Using the formula for latent heat of fusion, the mass of the ice was calculated to be The error of the carried out experiment was calculated to be Introduction: A substance requires energy to change from one phase state to another, or in other words, when it goes from either a solid to liquid or liquid to gas.
The potential energy that is stored between molecules of the substance needs to be overcome by the kinetic energy of the motion of the particles before the substance can undergo the phase change. The temperature of a substance as heat is added to change the phase from the solid state to the gas state is shown below.
Phase changes are indicated by flat regions where heat energy is used to overcome attractive forces between molecules. Starting a point A, the substance is in the solid state. Adding heat brings the temperature up until the substance reaches the melting point, but the material is still a solid at point B. As heat is further added, the energy from the Specific latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy that is needed to change a specific substance from solid to liquid.Latent Heat
Vanadium 50 Staff Emeritus. Science Advisor. Education Advisor. Can you talk to your teacher? After all, you did the experiment. We didn't. It will be difficult for us to guess what the procedure was without having been there. No I can't. He resigned a few days later.
Nevermind though, I found the book. The method for the Lab was: 1. Found mass of empty cup 2. Found mass of cup with water 3. Recorded temperature of water 4. Dried small peices of ice and melted them in water 5. Kept adding ice until temerature was your teacher should have given you a no. Recorded info. You must log in or register to reply here. Last Post Mar 5, Materials: mL graduated cylinder caution — glass 12 oz or 16 ox Styrofoam cup thermometer and ice to be supplied by the student.
Experiment: Energy is required to change water from a solid to a liquid, i. In this experiment you will measure the amount of energy needed per gram of ice. You must remove the same amount of energy per gram if you want to turn water from a liquid into a solid freeze water.
Before you begin the experiment you should obtain some ice. You will need a few ice cubes or about half a cup of crushed ice. Put the ice in a bowl and let it sit at room temperature until you notice that it is starting to melt. This will probably take 15 or 20 minutes. In the freezer ice is kept at a temperature well below freezing. We need to allow the ice to sit outside the freezer long enough that it warms up to 0o C. Add to mL of warm or hot tap water 40o C or less to the Styrofoam cup.
This warm water will be the source of the energy used to melt the ice. Keep a record of the volume of water added to the cup. Measure and record the temperature of the warm water.
Once the ice is melted measure and record the water temperature. If the water temperatures drops to near 0o C or if you are unable to quickly melt all of the ice, you will need to repeat the experiment. You will need to use more water, less ice, or both. Use the graduated cylinder to measure the volume of the water in the Styrofoam cup. This new volume will be larger than the initial volume because ti contains the water from the melt ice.
The differences in masses is the mass of the ice that was melted. Repeat the experiment at least one more time using a different amount of water, a different amount of ice, and perhaps a different initial water temperature. Title 5 pts Your report should have a descriptive title Introduction 10 pts This is perhaps the most difficult part of the report to write.
You must have a goodunderstanding of the whole experiment to be able to write a clear and complete introduction. The introduction should explain in fairly general terms what kind of measurement you tried to make and how you made it.Heat is the transfer of energy between matter due to differences in temperature.
In this experiment, heat transfer was studied by calorimetry. The mixing of warm and cool water was observed, as well as the experimental latent heat of fusion. Calculate the temperature change, D tfor the warming of cold water and the cooling of warm water. Calculate the percent difference between the heat lost by the warm water and the heat gained by the cold water for each trial. Calculate the average of the two experimental values for the latent heat of fusion.
An accepted value for the heat of fusion of ice is 3. Compare your average experimental value with the accepted value. The ice was heated by its surroundings for a significant time prior to the experiment. This experiment failed to measure that heat transfer. Conclusion In conclusion, the energy transfer between matter, heat, was studied by calorimetry.
General heat transfer and latent fusion was observed in water. Browse Documents. Heat Transfer Lab Experiment.
How to Measure Heat of Fusion of Ice
Leave a reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Comment Name Email Website. Mass of Graduated Cylinder and Cold Water. Mass of Graduated Cylinder and Hot Water. Mass of Inner Calorimeter Cup and Stirrer.
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